11/12/2010

Dr. Brian Shackel
www.brianshackel.com

Unilock Pavers
www.unilock.com

  • Water Sensitive Urban Design
    • FishIslandWSUD packet for Australia
    • Low Impact
      • Replicate pre-development water discharge.
      • Reduce runoff
      • Control the quality
        • MOST IMPORTANT than reducing runoff.
  • Harvest (reuse) water.
  • Best Management Practices (BMPs)
    • Link on web
  • Cost of permible pavers is less than non-permible pavers.
  • Pavers will become glogged.
    • Needs to design within the desing.
    • Possible contamination of water table
    • Recharge local aquifers
    • Reduces flooding
    • Reduces need of expensive water management.
  • Paving
    • Reduce temperature of runoff
    • Filtrations of water for quality
    • Accommodates pedestrian and vehicles
    • Reduces storm water management cost
  • Information from California EPA’s web site.
  • Goal is to put as much water in the pavement as possible.
    • Works because we planned and designed for it.
  • Function
    • Support trafficStorm water management
    • Pollution control
    • Harvest and reuse the water
  • Porous Pavements
    • Permeable Interlocking concrete
    • Pours concrete
    • Porous Asphalt
  • Asphalt bad do to toxic material
  • Booklet: ICPI for comparison
  • Where to use
    • Where storm water capacity is near capacity
    • Where there is now space for detention ponds
    • There is limitations for impermeable cover
    • Water table deeper than 2 feet.
  • Do not use
    • Sites with steep slopes greater than 6%
    • Where the water table is high
    • Where the bedrock is shallow
    • Where there is high sediment
    • Where there are tidal impacts.
  • LEED
    • Points for permeable pavers
  • Heat island effect is becoming increasingly important.
    • Color of concrete is not as determent as the material make-up
    • With lighter paving, can use less parking lighting
  • Types
    • Car Parks
    • Residential
    • Access Road
  • Study shows permeable are less expensive due to the savings in other storm water control required. More in Residential and Access Roads.
  • Water treatment cost of cities should be considered in cost.
  • Snow and Ice
    • Reduces pounding and refreezing. Melt goes directly into pavement.
    • Base materials are not frost  – susceptible
    • Grit is better to use than sand
    • Sand will clog pavers
  • You MUST compact your subgrade for parking and cars.
    • Twice: before pavers and after
  • Grass Stones and grids
    • Reduction of runoff
    • Illusion of lawn
    • Maintance cost low
    • Pollutant trapping
    • Water does not go through quickly
    • Only used for light traffic like car parks
  • Porous pavers
    • Water goes through slowly
    • Clogs
  • Open joints pavers
    • Road sweepers can clean clogs
    • Quicker water drainage
    • Shapers other than rectangles are better
      •  L shape
      • Patterns like herring bone
    • Drainage voids are filled with aggregate
    • High heels do not go through aggregate
    • Have openings or joints types
  • Infiltration depends more on the aggregate in the joints and the subgrade than the percentage of opening pavement.
  • Specification: ASTM C-936
  • Best are pavers with openings and pavers with wide joints. Good for trucks and more.
  • Provides pollution control at the source by trapping or absorbing and allow solids to settle out.
  • Drainage time of at least 24 hours.
    • Longer the better.
    • Australia thinks 3 days is best.
  •  Bio-Remediation to break down oil and other contaminants
    • Adding chemical on top of the pavement to create a reaction with oil below.
  • Pollutants are trapped mainly in the top 2” of the pavement.
    • Allows sweepers to remove pollutants.
  • Large drop in the first 2 years.
    • Design for 8 to 10 years of permeability.
  • By removing the pollutants in the top 1” can return the amount of permeability.
  • Do we need to clean the pavement
    • Good idea, but is an open question.
  • Clogging is typically concentrated in areas therefore water moves to unclogged areas.
  • Control soil around pavement to keep from runoff onto pavement.
  • Best to use ASTM #9 joint filling material not ASTM #8.
  • Must fill joints with aggregate.
  • Structural performance
    • Shape
    • Pattern
  • Interlocking is very important for structural performance.
  • Must fill the joints for structural performance.
  • Performance of traditional and permeable pavers is similar.
  • Substructure
    • Do not required to use a single size sub-base material. (ASTM #8_
    • Use railroad ballast.
    • Ohio recommendations from federal highways.
    • Recommendations: DGB 20 Granular base.

Design

  • Look at water management first, then structural design.
  • Steps
    • Calculate retention
    • Predict outflows
    • Structural design
  • Reason to design
    • Storm water management
    • Flood control
    • Water quality
    • Harvest and reuse
  • Type of application
    • Landscaping
    • Patios, paths
    • Public spaces with emergency vehicles
    • Road pavement
    • Industrial pavements
  • Cross over is in car parks
    • With truck traffic, must take structure into account
  • 5 Paver Type
  • Highest rate of infiltration is for pavers with open holes.
  • Type of subgrade soil is important
  • Cross-Seciton subgrade
    • Full infiltration
      •  Gravel soils
      •  Optional liner
    • Partial infiltration
      •  Clays soils
      •  Hold water
      • Use a pipe to allow the water to flow slowly to the storm sewer
      •   Permeable liner to keep clay from coming up below pipe
    • No infiltration
      • Contaminated soils and Expansive clay soils
      •  Hold water
      • Permeable liner to keep clay from coming up below pipe
      • Imperable linger below pipe
  • Hydraulic design and structural design decides the thickness of subgrade
    • Software through Unilock or Shackel web site for design
    • PC-SWMM software LOCKPAVE Pro
  • 500 papers on paving and case studies: www.sept.org
  • Paver setting machine is used with more than 10,000 sf of pavement.
  • Use Angular stone, not rounded.
  • Geogrids have a limited use.
    • Most areas Geogrids and Geofabrics are not needed or work well.
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